Violette Marsan, Erik Braagaard, Henri De Chatillon: French Milliners of New York, 1930–1968

Violette Marsan, Erik Braagaard, Henri De Chatillon: French Milliners of New York, 1930–1968

Celine Khawam
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
Many designers who were significant contributors to Paris fashions in the 1930s have disappeared from the record of fashion history. This long list of forgotten designers includes Violette H. Marsan (1902-1997), Erik Braagaard (1912-2004), and Henri de Châtillon (1906- 1972), three Paris-based French modistes (milliners) who were celebrated for their elegant hats. They gained widespread success in France before fleeing the country in the wake of the Second World War and settling in New York and Mexico City. They were part of the numerous French émigrés (immigrants) who had found refuge in the United States during wartime, many of whom were intellectuals, artists, and designers. Back then, the French fashion community of New York was acclaimed, notably through the design contributions of Madame Nicole and Lilly Daché, two renowned French-American milliners. Despite their success and talent, the creations of Violette Marsan, Erik Braagaard, and Henri de Châtillon are not well represented in museum collections and their names are no longer recalled. My goal with this paper is to recover the course of their respective careers and recount these untold stories. A close look at their work, aspirations, and influence in New York and beyond will provide further insight into their style and relationship to the American fashion industry between 1930 and 1968, at a time of democratization of fashion and greater recognition for American designers.
Unwrapping a Korean Folk Textile: The Historical Analysis and Treatment of a Mid-twentieth Century Jogakbo-Bojagi

Unwrapping a Korean Folk Textile: The Historical Analysis and Treatment of a Mid-twentieth Century Jogakbo-Bojagi

Minna Kim
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
The purpose of this qualifying paper is to emphasize the historical importance of a post-1950 jogakbo-bojagi, a Korean wrapping cloth featuring patchwork, and to treat it prior to mounting for a private collector.
Chapters one through five cover the history, function, qualities, and variations of bojagi textiles and their cultural importance to society, particularly women. Traditionally, women played a large role in the making of bojagi, which is why this paper will explore the societal expectations of women in Korea during the Joseon dynasty. To fully grasp the cultural context of bojagi textiles, this paper will briefly cover Korea's history from the ancient Three Kingdoms Period to the end of the Japanese occupation period. In this paper, topics covered include trade, cultivation of fibers, synthetic dyes, and global history from the late-nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries. Lastly, chapters six through eight will cover the condition and treatment of the jogakbo-bojagi, as well as final conclusions and dating of the object.
Elizabeth Hawes: Along Her Own Lines

Elizabeth Hawes: Along Her Own Lines

  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Image
  • Exhibitions (events)
  • Exhibition installation photographs
The exhibition is organized by the graduate students of the Fashion Institute of Technology's MA program in Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice, in collaboration with The Museum at FIT.
Presenting Sekitori: History, Materiality, and Embodiment in Contemporary Sumo

Presenting Sekitori: History, Materiality, and Embodiment in Contemporary Sumo

Giuliana F. Ciampoli
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
Sekitori are the men who compete in ōzumō, the highest-level competition of Japanese wrestling known as sumō, which is widely recognized as Japan's national sport. The unique and meaningful dress and textiles used in ōzumō are rich in symbolism and historical significance. This paper aims to explore and interpret the dress of sekitori and its cultural importance, particularly for an unfamiliar, Western audience.The sport holds significance in Japanese culture due to its reliance on ritual and tradition and because it epitomizes certain Japanese values related to masculine identity and cultural legacy. This study demonstrates that the culture of ōzumō and the dress of sekitori exemplifies these values. By adopting Deborah Evanson and Joanne Eicher's comprehensive definition of dress, which this paper interprets as physical presentation, encompassing anything worn or held for the purpose of appearance, including sensory aspects such as sound, smell, body shape, size, musculature, hair, or any modification of the body at a given time.This research delves into the historical and contemporary significance of sumō's material culture with a particular focus on the details, origins, meanings and making of sekitori's dress. It also dispels misconceptions about a sport which until recently has been hidden away from outsiders in what is referred to as kakukai, or the sumō world, a term which reflects its exclusivity. Through this exploration, the paper contributes to a deeper understanding of sumō culture and Japanese craftsmanship, as well as what each reflects about Japanese culture.By examining the dress of sekitori, this study not only reviews the origins and development of sumō, intertwined as it is with Japan's history from myth and legend to the early twentieth century, but also reveals its deep interrelation with contemporary Japanese culture. Presenting a unique study of the dress of sekitori, an aspect of sumō that has received little attention in scholarship, this paper opens up new areas for further exploration in the field of dress and textile studies.
Harper's Bazaar

Harper's Bazaar

  • 2016
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Gladys Marcus Library
  • Image
  • Exhibitions (events)
  • Exhibition installation photographs
To coincide with The Gallery at FIT exhibit, The Women of Harper's Bazaar, 1936-1958, organized by the graduate students in the Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice MA program, displaying issues of Harper Bazaar held by the Library's Periodicals Dept.
Marketing the Sound: Fashioning the Blues Musician and the Country Music Cowboy

Marketing the Sound: Fashioning the Blues Musician and the Country Music Cowboy

Jules Eckelkamp
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
Focusing on the period between the country music’s recognition as a distinct category of music in the 1920s and its evolution into a polished and solidified genre in the 1950s, I will discuss the segregation of Black and white singers into the categories of hillbilly and race music and the resulting changes to the artists’ wardrobe. I will look at the dress of the rural Mississippi Delta and Appalachian regions where both genres emerged from. I will consider the influence of record labels, touring shows, and the artists themselves on the musician’s visual branding. A particular focus will be placed on the leading artists in the country and blues genres during this time and the representations of gender within these artists' wardrobe and the subtext of these style choices. I will then discuss how country musician’s initial dress shifted into a more distinct country costume due to blues and pop sounds encroaching on the country music genre in the 1940s and 1950s and how the blues genre and the typical blues musician has become romanticized due to white scholarship of the genre.
Christian Dior-New York, Inc.

Christian Dior-New York, Inc.

Adnan Ege Kutay
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
Christian Dior-New York Inc. (CD-NY) was established in 1948 as a ready-to-wear line designed by Parisian couturier Christian Dior for the American market. Although it was designed by the head designer of the Paris house for the first half its history, by the early 1960s , when New York-based CD-NY designers started to design the line, it became more of a Seventh Avenue brand. This successful line lasted almost twenty-four years, and became an important part of the American fashion industry. Christian Dior-New York inspired other ready-to-wear lines by Paris couturiers in the postwar era, such as Jacques Fath and Pierre Balmain. This qualifying paper tells the history of Christian Dior-New York and the designers who created it, from its start in 1948 until its closure in 1972. In the last chapter, the characteristics of existing CD-NY garments are studied, and compared with garments from other Christian Dior lines.
Kazakh Traditional Dress Through the Nineteenth Century

Kazakh Traditional Dress Through the Nineteenth Century

Dana Callahan
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
This study examines and explores traditional Kazakh dress and fashion during the nineteenth century – a period of significant cultural and social change in Central Asia. Drawing on a range of historical sources, including ethnographic travel accounts, photographs, and museum collections, and considering the historically nomadic culture of the Kazakh nation, the paper examines the various elements of Kazakh dress and its social, cultural, and economic significance. Discussions follow with respect to the use of natural materials such as wool, leather, and fur, as well as the role of dress in signaling social status and identity. Additionally, this paper provides an overview of the impact of external influences, such as Russian colonization, including under the Soviet Union, on Kazakh dress traditions. The paper observes that despite the challenges posed by external factors, traditional Kazakh dress persisted as a symbol of cultural identity and continuity in the face of rapid change. This project is focused specifically on Kazakh attire, separate from the broader category of Central Asian clothing, and aims to provide more clarity on what distinguishes Kazakh dress from its regional neighbors.

As this research project primarily relates to the author’s native country of Kazakhstan, its original contribution and perspective adds to the existing scholarship on this topic, most of which is by Soviet anthropologists and ethnographers and in the Russian language. The paper was written using English, Kazakh, and Russian (including Old Russian) language sources, with some produced in Kazakhstan (including Soviet Kazakhstan). The project aims to deepen knowledge about specifically Kazakh garment traditions for an English-language audience by increasing understanding of this nation’s history, culture and people
The Application of Practice-Led Research for the Conservation Professional: The Reproduction of An English Seventeenth-Century Embroidered Bookbinding

The Application of Practice-Led Research for the Conservation Professional: The Reproduction of An English Seventeenth-Century Embroidered Bookbinding

Ayako Tanihata
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
This paper focuses on the reproduction of a seventeenth-century English embroidered bookbinding in the collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art (The Met). The first part of the paper reviews a small group of successful practice-led research projects and considers them as a group. This section promotes the research of important scholars, many of whom work outside of academia, by recognizing common approaches across their projects and identifying methods that could be useful for conservators looking to include reproduction as part of their conservation practice. Following an auto-ethnographic approach, the second part of this project documents my experience analyzing materials and techniques, sourcing materials, and reproducing sections of the original bookbinding by implementing the methodologies reviewed in the first section of the paper. For the final section, I, a trained textile conservator, reviews and analyzes their extensive hands-on process and considers the possibilities practice-led research presents for the field of textiles and fashion conservation.
The Emergence of Japanese Americans in Fashion:  The Triumphs and Legacies of Forgotten Designers, 1939-1965

The Emergence of Japanese Americans in Fashion: The Triumphs and Legacies of Forgotten Designers, 1939-1965

Zoe Taylor
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
In the twenty-first century, fashion scholarship has pushed for a more inclusive study of the history of fashion. Although there has been an increased focus on the study of Asian American designers, prior research has yet to account for earlier Japanese American designers that appeared on a wider scale in the mid-twentieth century. Early Japanese American contributors to the fashion industry were present at least almost 100 years ago in the 1930s. Although the internment of 120,000 Japanese Americans stunted the capabilities of this community, those with an interest in fashion were able to unify under a period of duress. The presence of fashion classes and shows throughout internment camps presents a determination for the creation of beauty amid imprisonment. Following their release after World War II, numerous women went to work within the fashion industry and achieved high levels of success, unfortunately all of which are forgotten today. Japanese American designers such as Linda Kinoshita were multitalented, and served many roles such as designer, seamstress, and entrepreneur. The following research resurfaces these successful designers not just among the Japanese American community, but also forms a more holistic understanding of American fashion history. Although unified in aspirations, each of these women created fashion in a unique approach and demonstrated individualistic career paths.
Orinoka Mills (1890-1989): A Front Runner in The Golden Age of Philadelphia’s Textile Industry

Orinoka Mills (1890-1989): A Front Runner in The Golden Age of Philadelphia’s Textile Industry

Sierra Jessica Neale
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
Orinoka Mills was a textile mill founded by the Solomon brothers in 1890 in Kensington, Philadelphia. Orinoka produced a wide variety of woven fabrics during what is considered the golden age of the Philadelphia textile industry. While these textiles can be considered relatively new as historical objects, they are just as important in the history of textiles as those from the previous centuries.

This paper is separated into three chapters; first, discussing the history of Orinoka Mills and Philadelphia’s textile industry, second, an in-depth study of Orinoka mills and lastly, a survey of the archives and the mill’s designs. The primary research for this paper was conducted by interviewing a selection of Orinoka employees from different areas of the business for firsthand perspectives and through reviewing Orinoka Mills’ textiles and paper archives. The intent was to study the history of Orinoka Mills in the context of the textile industry in the twentieth century. Orinoka and other mills in the region made a lasting impact on the textile industry. Their histories are important to document, and examples of their textiles should be conserved and archived today.

The recent history of a U.S. mill is worthy of in-depth study while we still have the opportunity for first-hand accounts from designers, managers, customers, and trade journalists. Studying and publishing more literature and scholarly sources on these contemporary woven textiles will be an invaluable source for students, museum visitors and industry professionals. As an example, Kravet. Inc. presented an exhibition of textiles from its archive collection at the New York School of Interior Design in 2019 featuring multiple Orinoka Mills textiles and related objects. Phyllis Greer stated in her review of the exhibition Every New Textile Has a History ”Though we might not think of these items as rare historical documents now, someday they will be. Many of these items show the process and communication behind the designs.”
The Urban Cowboy: The Evolution of Westernwear in High-End Fashion, 1965-1995

The Urban Cowboy: The Evolution of Westernwear in High-End Fashion, 1965-1995

Melinda Abercrombie
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
Westernwear refers to a style of dress inspired by the workwear of cowboys from the United States which is made up of various influences from Spain to Indigenous peoples of the United States, developing into one broad visual identity. The cowboy who wears this dress is a central character in the mythology of the American West. The myth of the West is strongly tied to American individualism, solidified with western expansion during the nineteenth century, and grew with the rise of the United States as a world power in the twentieth century. As an export, the American cowboy and iconography in an international context is seen as a representation of the country rather than just a region. Once abroad, the mythology tied to the image of the cowboy may be reinterpreted according to its non-American viewer.

This non-American reinterpretation is the focus of this paper’s research to discuss westernwear coming to high-end fashion catwalks by way of foreign film production, musical stage costuming, continued reimagining of the cowboy’s iconography through film and television and finally joining fashion’s vocabulary via foreign fashion designers. The timeline will use these key cultural moments of international exposure and uses of westernwear to be then translated into high-end fashion in both Europe and the United States from 1965 to 1995. Westernwear’s reimagining and appropriation into the global fashion’s world in the late 20th century follows the downfall of the glorification and romanticization of the iconography of the cowboy. The cowboy represents America on the international stage so in turn the use of westernwear references in fashion is a commentary on where the United States stands politically or economically internationally.
The Sari in Paris Fashion: 1910 to 1940

The Sari in Paris Fashion: 1910 to 1940

Jaya Misra
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
The Sari is perhaps the most recognizable and influential garment from the Indian subcontinent. Despite its extensive influence and complex history within international fashion, it is often solely associated with Orientalism—an association which has caused the nuances of its history to be overlooked. This paper begins with an overview of the Sari and then goes on to analyze a variety of sources, primarily articles from the fashion press and extant garments, to understand the major and minor ways in which the Sari influenced Paris fashion between 1910 and 1940. It highlights the Parisian designers and their clients, who contributed to its popularity in fashion. It reconstructs the Sari’s journey in context with the major developments of early twentieth-century fashion, beginning with Avant-Garde Modernism around the 1910s to the Neoclassical Modernism of the 1930s. In the process, it illustrates the Sari’s many roles; as medium, influence and ultimately as a fashionable garment in its own right. This paper advocates for a more nuanced approach to studying fashion history—one which moves away from essentialized views of “East” and “West.” The understanding of the extent of the Sari’s influence on and presence within Paris fashion is a step towards reducing its isolation from mainstream fashion studies.
How to Solve(NT) a Problem: Implementing Commercial Dry Cleaning in a Textile Conservation Setting

How to Solve(NT) a Problem: Implementing Commercial Dry Cleaning in a Textile Conservation Setting

Sophia Daniel
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
This qualifying paper is an investigation into the past and current state of how commercial dry cleaning (solvent cleaning) is being used as a treatment option in textile conservation. Literature on the topic of dry cleaning in conservation is for the most part dated. Additionally, there is a barrier of entry into treatment as machinery is expensive and requires working with someone who owns and knows how to operate the equipment. An update on the current uses of dry cleaning in the conservation field and changes in the dry cleaning industry would be beneficial to those wishing to expand treatment options for collections in their care. Investigating the topic of solvent cleaning will be accomplished through tracing developments and literature review to better understand where commercial dry cleaning stands in the field of textile conservation in terms of application. This text will also act as an overview of how to process works so those interested in utilizing dry cleaning as a treatment have a resource that combines several areas of research.
Analysis, Treatment, and Mounting of an 1820 Embroidered Sampler

Analysis, Treatment, and Mounting of an 1820 Embroidered Sampler

Molly E. Leonard
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
This qualifying paper explores the history of Dutch embroidered samplers, focusing on common imagery, and discusses a cleaning treatment for a c. 1820 Dutch embroidered sampler. Of particular interest in this paper are popular embroidery motifs, the importance of embroidered samplers in women's lives, methods for addressing tidelines caused by water contact, and mounting for future display. The sampler is in the collection of an FIT Adjunct Instructor, and will return to her possession after treatment.
The Conservation of a Qing Dynasty Ao (Late Nineteenth-Century Chinese Women’s Robe)

The Conservation of a Qing Dynasty Ao (Late Nineteenth-Century Chinese Women’s Robe)

Alyson Katz
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
This qualifying paper documents the conservation treatment of a Qing Dynasty Ao (late nineteenth-century Chinese Han women’s robe). The robe is now part of the Graduate Study Collection and is available for research.

The first section of this paper looks at the historical context of this style of robe as well as the meaning of the different decorative motifs and embellishments seen on the garment. The second part of the paper is a complete documentation of the condition, treatment proposal, and treatment report.

To conclude, this paper assesses the treatment along with an overview of the different ideologies of compensating for loss to justify the treatment options. The research thoroughly discusses the choices that lead up to the decisions made during treatment. The conservation treatments involved included: hand stitched underlay and overlay supports, adhesives, custom dying, and rehousing.
Signature By Babs: Isabel “Babs” Willaumez Rawlings At American Vogue 1933-1955

Signature By Babs: Isabel “Babs” Willaumez Rawlings At American Vogue 1933-1955

Maurizio Francesco Marrero
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
Despite the striking life and career of the English-born fashion editor, illustrator, and designer Isabel “Babs” Willaumez Rawlings (BWR) (1902 -1986), her contributions are still underrepresented in fashion history. Having started her career at French Vogue in 1933, she would change over to American Vogue in 1935 until her departure in 1946. BWR was at Vogue during the time when other prominent fashion editors were working, such as Edna Woolman Chase, Bettina Ballard at Vogue, and Carmel Snow and Diana Vreeland at Harper’s Bazaar. As the wife of two men with successful fashion careers, the illustrator René Bouët-Willaumez and the photographer John Rawlings, her name often appears in connection with them. However, she was a talented woman in her own right; the primary sources that exist suggest she was an influential editor and deserves to be the focus of a fashion studies paper.

BWR’s ideas often appeared in American Vogue in stories which she illustrated herself. She contributed to many editorials where she communicated ideas put into practice in her own wardrobe. Her three “Signature–‘Babs’ ” articles from 1944 demonstrate her instinctive personal style. Through editorials such as “Suits” and “Painters’ Scarfs and How to Wear Them,” BWR’s process is revealed; she reworked the same concept over years until it was perfected. Her use of accessories is why the word consistent can be used to describe her personal style. Having all the qualifications of a tastemaker of the 1930s and 1940s, BWR also acted as a collaborator with the designers who custom-made some of her clothing. This is the first study of the life and career of an influential American fashion editor and thus contributes towards a more complete history of twentieth-century fashion.
Uncovering the Life and Work of American Fashion Designer, Marguery Bolhagen (1920-2021)

Uncovering the Life and Work of American Fashion Designer, Marguery Bolhagen (1920-2021)

Bridget Kerr
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
In their 2022 exhibition entitled In America: An Anthology of Fashion, the Metropolitan Museum of Art displayed a ball gown by Marguery Bolhagen (1920-2021) and utilized a photograph of its installation to advertise their exhibition. The exhibition offered little information on the designer and discussed the client and donor of the dress in greater detail. Little record existed discussing Bolhagen’s work; beyond her role as a ready-to-wear designer for Bergdorf Goodman beginning in 1965, she was relatively unknown. Despite this, her work is held in institutions throughout the United States, including the Met, the Museum of the City of New York, and the Historic Costume and Textiles Collection at Ohio State University. The aim of this paper is to consider her importance to fashion historians and the public.

This qualifying paper uncovers the life and work of American fashion designer Marguery Bolhagen, delving beyond a striking image used to advertise an exhibition, and looking beyond her relationship to her most famous client, Austine Hearst, also known as Mrs. William Randolph Hearst, Jr. Drawing from fashion press research, object-based study, and interviews with descendants of the designer, this paper is organized into two chapters. The first chapter discusses the life of the designer chronologically from birth to death, with focus on her work in the fashion industry. The second chapter is dedicated to an examination of six objects by Bolhagen in the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s collection. The paper concludes with a discussion of the challenges presented when conducting this research, and further research avenues to be pursued. Aiming to recognizing the work of a female couturier amongst her male contemporaries, this paper contextualizes Marguery Bolhagen as an American fashion designer in the twentieth century.
An Exploration of Embroidered and Pieced Kashmiri Shawls

An Exploration of Embroidered and Pieced Kashmiri Shawls

Kripa K. Kewalramani
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
The Kashmiri shawl developed over three hundred years, with each culture bringing its own unique contribution to the evolution of the Kashmiri shawl. The variety of Kashmiri shawls is endless; this can be seen museum and private collections, on auction websites and published in books. The majority of Kashmiri shawls in museums and private collections today is of nineteenth-century manufacture. The invention of embroidered shawls, which originally started as a touch-up on designs of completed shawls, started in the mid-eighteenth century. In the nineteenth century, shawl production received a powerful external stimulus and took a change of course when European attention impacted local designs and manufacture. It was during this time that piecework resulted, and culminated in the shift from atelier weaving toward mass market.

This qualifying paper will focus on three shawls attributed to Kashmir, India, analyze the use of embroidery and piecing in their construction, and review a comprehensive treatment for one. The research and treatment of that shawl, done for FT644, Advanced Conservation II, in Spring 2022, provided the inspiration for this paper. The body of this paper is a comparison of the three shawls. All three are lined, composite and embroidered - yet, are all different. All three are hand-woven in the kani weave, a twill tapestry weave with interlocking wefts, from Kashmir, India. This paper analyzes the similarities and differences of all three and the publication on Kashmiri shawl conservation treatments.
Awakening the Senses: Adornment in Film Costumes by Adrian

Awakening the Senses: Adornment in Film Costumes by Adrian

Karen Randi Perlman
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
Hollywood films of the 1920s-40s included lavishly embellished costumes that reflected light from metallic embroidery, sequins and glass beads. The reflected light was augmented with feathers, fringes, and other adornments. These spectacular costumes were enhanced by headdresses and jewelry. The challenge of creating illusionary beauty was achieved by the costume designer, who imagined and executed his/her designs. In Hollywood history, there is a legendary film costume designer whose costumes are still marveled at today. He is Gilbert Adrian (1903-59) simply known as “Adrian,” who worked as the Head Costume Designer at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) from 1928 to 1941. Film scholars have credited Adrian as the most influential film costume designer, and the creator of the “Hollywood Glamour Look.” Adrian’s creations serve as cases-in-point to examine how adornment (i.e. embellishment, headwear and jewelry) augment the “embodiment” of film costumes (i.e. dress). Eighteen films from 1929 to 1941 were categorized into five groups: Reflected Light; Feathers and Fringes Abound; Modernism: Simplicity and Contrast; Hollywood’s Orientalism; and Masquerade and Musicals. The theoretical frameworks were phenomenology, Mei Mei Rado, Edward Said, and Anne Hollander among others to provide a different perspective on “embodiment.” The results Adrian achieved from his astute understanding of how fabrics and embellishments film in black-and-white are impressive. Adrian’s prolific career from film costume to fashion designer remains influential today.
A Survey and Annotated Bibliography Focusing on Publications Related to the Technical Analyses of Metal Thread, 1995-2022

A Survey and Annotated Bibliography Focusing on Publications Related to the Technical Analyses of Metal Thread, 1995-2022

Karri Vaughn
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
This qualifying paper is an annotated bibliography of publications having to do with the technical analysis of metal threads used in textiles since 1995. For the 104 papers listed, 60 were annotated by the author, and for the remaining 43, the original paper’s abstracts were sufficient. Publications were categorized and sorted by purpose of published investigation (history, conservation, method of manufacture, etc.); and the actual technique(s) employed in each publication. Information about the type of thread construction (flat strips, metal-wrapped on fiber core, etc.), the metal content, and the application of the metal thread is described in the annotations using consistent terminology to make the document searchable. The entries are in alphabetical order by author and only publications in English are included.

Significant work had been done on metal thread analysis prior to 1995 by some pioneers in the field: Norman Indictor, Robert Koestler, Mary Ballard, and Marta Járó. A compilation of what has been published since 1995 was needed, especially in light of new analytical equipment now available in labs. Hence, this bibliography starts at 1995.

A brief history of metal threads and the development of manufacturing methods is included as well as a brief overview of some of the past developments in metal thread analysis. However, this paper is not intended as an exhaustive compilation of all papers written about the history, manufacture, or conservation of metal threads. In order to be included in this bibliography, some form of analytical technique investigating metal threads must have been employed. Some papers may coincidentally examine coatings and organic substrates, but those were included only if they also performed metal analysis.
Pants, Performance, and Perception: The Impact of New York's Disguise Law (1845) on Gendered Dress

Pants, Performance, and Perception: The Impact of New York's Disguise Law (1845) on Gendered Dress

Deirdre Mary Morgan
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
In 1856, the New York Daily Times reported that a person named Charley was arrested in New York City and sentenced to “two months imprisonment on Blackwell’s Island” for vagrancy and wearing men's clothing. Charley—who was identified as Harriet French—was one of the many civilians who were subjected to the cross-dressing laws that appeared across the United States throughout the end of the nineteenth century. At the same time these laws were being enacted, gender impersonation acts were growing in popularity thanks to Vaudeville, giving gender performance a public platform. Actors, like Ella Wesner, gave paid public performances where they were praised on stage for the illusions they were able to cast. Wesner was one of the performers cited as not only having worn men’s clothing during her performances, but was known to wear men’s clothes in public, and was ultimately buried in men’s clothes as requested in her will. This paper will use Charley and Ella Wesner as a lens to examine how fashion plays a role in the construction of gender and consider the necessary narrative expansion needed in fashion history scholarship.
The Inspirations and Designs of Ana de Pombo

The Inspirations and Designs of Ana de Pombo

Floricia Arce
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
Ana de Pombo (1889 -1985) was a Spanish born fashion designer living and working in Paris, France in the 1920s-1940s. Popular and well known in her time, she is little known by historians and the public today. At the height of her career in the mid-1930s, de Pombo was the lead designer for the House of Paquin (1891-1956) where she successfully incorporated the popular artistic movement, flamenco, into her designs. De Pombo’s side career as a flamenco performer gave her awareness of the popularity of the art form and provided her with intimate knowledge of ways to use common flamenco imagery in her work. This qualifying paper explores the connection between Ana de Pombo’s interest in flamenco and her evening wear designs for the House of Paquin.
Seguimos Aquí: Indigenous Fashion in Latin America

Seguimos Aquí: Indigenous Fashion in Latin America

Michelle Ralph-Fortón
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
Seguimos Aquí: Indigenous Fashion in Latin America, translated to “we are still here,” is a proposed traveling exhibition that will be the first to highlight fashion created by living Indigenous Latin American designers. Showcasing the creativity and talent of five designers and four Latin-owned luxury labels collaborating with artisans from Central and South American countries will emphasize the makers’ craftsmanship and innovations. Ensembles, costumbrismo art, literature, photographs, and museum artifacts will provide historical context for the designers’ work. Media will include interview clips with the designers and artisans, runway coverage, and behind-the-scenes content on the creative process. Accompanying biand tri-lingual didactic text, in order of the Indigenous language, official language, to English, is vital to consider inclusivity and respectful public engagement for all visitors.

Composed of four thematic sections, Perspectivas Cambiantes (Shifting Perspectives) will begin by challenging how we define terms such as dress, fashion, traditional clothing, and costume. This section will demonstrate shifting perceptions of Indigenous people and fashion with examples from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The second section, Resistencia (Resistance), will highlight the importance of Indigenous representation and the lack thereof in the fashion industry. In Respeto (Respect), emphasis on the many hands involved in a brand's identity is central, honing in on fair trade models. The final section, Revolución (Revolution), will showcase current initiatives to help preserve the passing of craft traditions to the next generations and speaks to where the future of Indigenous fashion is going without the limitations of a “non-Western” label. An exhibition checklist, along with exhibition design, public programming, and catalog proposal, is included.
From Revival to Reinvention: Quilting in America, 1971-2023

From Revival to Reinvention: Quilting in America, 1971-2023

Hayden Lees Cubas
  • 2023
  • Fashion and Textile Studies: History, Theory, Museum Practice
  • Text
  • Thesis
This qualifying paper traces the most recent quilting revival in America from the 1970s through modern-day and examines the circumstances of early and late Revival quilters, with exploration into whether early and late Revival quilters are indeed part of the same quilting movement. Investigating the factors that sparked the revival in the Seventies, and the evolution of the quilting industry that grew around Revival Quilters in the years that followed, characteristics of quilters are defined as the decades progress and the nature of Revival Quilting changes. Quilters’ dialogs with the growing quilting industry affect commercially available products in the hobby market, as well as the output of those who engage with the craft and how quilts are created.

As new tools and technologies change, the ways in which quilters engage with the craft evolves dramatically. While post-millennium quilters find their foundations in the quilting revival of the Seventies, increasing developments in technology and the internet give them unprecedented access to peer dialog and educational materials. New avenues to careers in quilting, grounded in YouTube, social media, and e-commerce, begin to emerge. In light of this exceptional level of access to the quilting community, sewing supplies, and pattern material, the author seeks to redefine post-millennium quilters, proposing a new term scholars may use to refer to them: Connected Quilters.